Phased array antennas are a means of creating narrow beams
and dynamically pointing them in the desired direction without
mmWave antennas used for 5G base stations and UEs. A
phased array antenna is formed by an array of smaller antenna
elements, such as individual patches or dipoles. By varying the
relative phases and amplitudes of the signals applied to the
individual elements, the antenna array can shape and steer a
beam in a chosen direction.