Common terms & acronyms used in wireless industry

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Layer 1 -  The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model has seven layers: Layer-1 is the Physical Layer and governs the transmission of data in a point to point or broadcast connection, with a focus on electrical, optical, or RF transmission properties.
Layers 2/3 -  The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model has seven layers: Layer-2 is the Data Link layer and Layer-3 is the Network layer. Together they are responsible for setting up connectivity between hosts, framing the information, and routing information to the right destination. Each layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it.
Layers 4-7 -  The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model has seven layers: Layers 4-7 implement data exchange between relatively distant systems. Layer-4 is the Transport, Layer 5 is the Session layer, Layer-6 is the Presentation layer, and Layer-7 is the Application layer. Each layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it.
LO - Local Oscillator -  An electronic component used for changing the frequency of a signal.
LoS - Line of Sight -  Refers to a system where transmitter and receiver are in view of each other without any obstruction. AM/FM radio, satellite transmission, and police radar are examples of line- of-sight communication.
LTE - Long Term Evolution -  High speed wireless data network and standard
LTE U - Advanced LTE Unlicensed -  Describes Advanced LTE deployments in unlicensed spectrum such as 5 GHz range
LTE-Advanced - Long-Term Evolution Advanced -  Also known as “LTE Release 10,” LTE-A is one of the two mobile communication platforms officially designated by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as the first 4G technology (the other is LTE-Advanced Pro). It specifies data rates of 500 Mbps maximum upload speed and 1 Gbps maximum download speed with a latency (round-trip) of 5 ms.
LTE-Advanced Pro - Long-Term Evolution Advanced Pro -  Also known as 4.5G, 4.5G Pro, 4.9G, pre-5G, its feature functionality is defined in 3GPP Release 13 and 14. An evolution of Long Term Evolution (LTE) with speeds up to 1 Gbps. LTE- Advanced Pro incorporates new functionality including 256 QAM, FD-MIMO, LTE-Unlicensed, LTE IoT, and other technologies to evolve existing networks towards the 5G standard.
LTE-LAA - Long-Term Evolution Licensed Assisted Access -  Part of 3GPP Release 13 and a feature of LTE Advanced Pro. It uses carrier aggregation in both the unlicensed (5 GHz) and licensed spectrums to increase peak user data rates and overall capacity of the network.




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